Shalane Flanagan became the first American woman for 40 years to win the New York Marathon as she captured her first major world title.
The 36-year-old, runner-up in 2010 and sixth at last year’s Olympics, won in two hours 26 minutes 53 seconds.
Kenya’s Mary Keitany, bidding for her fourth consecutive victory in the race, was 61 seconds back in second.
Snipers were present in heightened security measures after the Manhattan truck attack which killed eight people.
Sanitation trucks filled with sand, known as blocker cars, were also evident in an attempt to prevent terrorists from driving into crowds of people.
More than 50,000 runners from about 125 nations took part in the race across five boroughs.
Flanagan pulled away from Keitany and Ethiopia’s Mamitu Daska at the 23-mile mark to emulate compatriot Miki Gorman’s success in 1977.
In the men’s race, Kenyan Geoffrey Kamworor held off countryman Wilson Kipsang to clock 2:10.53 and win by three seconds.
In the men’s wheelchair race, Switzerland’s Marcel Hug completed an American clean sweep, crossing the line in 1:37.17 to add to his wins in Boston and Chicago this year.
Hug, who won last year’s race by sixth hundredths of a second, finished over two minutes clear of Canada’s Josh Cassidy to win his third New York title.
Compatriot Manuela Schar, three times a runner-up in New York, beat five-time winner Tatyana McFadden by nearly three minutes to win the women’s wheelchair race in 1:48.09.
It was the first time the wheelchair races were won by competitors from the same country.